測量の誤差や測量機を使用する上での注意について解説。

測量の誤差について

高性能な測量機を使用する目的は、誤差を少なくするためです。まず 測量において誤差が出ないことはありえません。

誤差の種類には、以下のものがあります。

・自然影響による誤差 気差、球差、両差 ・気差

空気の密度が変換することによって、光が屈折するために生じる誤差のこと。

・球差

本来、地表は球形をしていますが、測量では、地表を平面とみなすので、 長い距離を測ると実際の地表と平面をに成した地表とのズレが大きくなる誤差のこと。

※トータルステーション(光波)には球差・気差補正機能が付いていますが、 オートレベルにはついていないので、球差の影響を受けない50m以内の測量を推奨しています。

・温度による機材の伸縮や陽炎(かげろう)による誤差

温度、湿度などの気象、 自然現象などの影響による誤差であまり著しい場合には、作業を中止した方が良いでしょう。

測量機そのものが持つ誤差

3軸誤差 『視準軸』と『水平軸』のズレ 『水平軸』と『鉛直軸』のズレ 『鉛直軸』の元からの傾き

このような誤差は、観測に用いる測量機、目標物等に何らかの衝撃が加わり、ズレを生じてしまった可能性があります。 このような場合、機械の点検調整が必要でしょう。

人為的な誤差

測定者のミスや不注意、経験不足によっておこるものを錯誤といい、誤差とは言い難いものです。

目盛りの読み方など測定者の個性によるもの

目盛りの読み間違い

測量機や目標物が傾いている
目標を正確にとらえていない
データの手入力から生じる入力ミス
その他によるもの
基準点(杭や鋲)自体が狂っている

測量機を使用する上での注意点

1.測量機が濡れた状態でケースにしまわない。

※測量器を濡れた状態でケースに片付けた場合、必ず測量器と共にケースも直射日光を避けて乾かすことが大事です、 濡れたまま測量器を入れっぱなしにすると、水蒸気が測量機の中に入り、レンズに内部から水滴がついてしまうので。 こうなった場合、修理代金が高価になります。壊れた場合、測量機器買取店などに買取に出すことになります。

2.測量機を運ぶ際、天秤担ぎをしない。

3.測量機をケースから出し入れする場合は必ずケースのカギの施錠確認をする。

※施錠せずにケースを持ち上げて、測量器がケースから落ちて転倒修理になる場合があります。

4.測量機の定期点検はマメに行う

※メーカー推奨は現場毎に校正を進めていますが、料金的な問題もありますので、最低でも1年に1回は定期点検に出しましょう。 マメに点検に出すことにより、測量機自体の寿命も延びます。

5.測量機を運搬(車での移動)する場合

衝撃を和らげられる場所、シート等において移動しましょう。

The problem is only some of the baffles on the jacket have

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